1S5 1957- THE LITTLE ROCK 9 CRISIS

20141121_193013

Text Study December 1st

HW Wednesday : questions 1-5 on Ferguson

Next Wednesday TEST on Unit 2 The Color Line

Revise:

November 21st, 2014.

Context : After the abolition of slavery in 1865, after the Jim Crow Laws that enforced the ‘Separate but Equal’ concept of segregation, after the Brown Vs Board of Education Supreme Court decision that ended segregation in schools in 1954, 2 years after the MontGomery Bus Boycott (1955)

MEMO:

1865- Lincoln abolished slavery

1896 – Plessy Vs Ferguson = ‘Separate but Equal’ concept / segregation is legal

1954 – Brown Vs Board of Education = End of segregation in schools.

1964 – Civil Rights Act

> The End of Segregation in school is official since 1954 but what happens in former white-only schools for Black people?

THE LITTLE ROCK CRISIS 1957

Little Rock is a city in the state of Arkansas, in the United States.

TODAY we focus on:

  • The Little Rock Nine Crisis Text Study – Carlotta’s story.
  • So far in the US White schools don’t accept Black students. Black people didn’t have any rights before 1964 (Civil Rights Act) and desegragation. The students were not considered equal.
  • Can the situation / mentalities change in one day / overnight ?
    • So far: jusque là
    • the same … as: le même que
    • overnight: du jour au lendemain

    1. The story is told by one of the nine black kids who tried to integrate Little Rock Central high school in 1957, in Arkansas. This school was a white-only school before 1954.

    Her name is Carlotta, she was a teenage student. We can notice a guard / soldier on the picture so the kids need protection.

    2. a. Schools before 1954 were separated between white-only ( rich ) and black-only (poor).

    b- 

    • Carlotta’s decision: Her teacher is responsible for her decision / He advised her to go / he asked her if she could be interested in going. The school is quite close (“less than a mile”) to her house / it’s not far away from her house. It offers top-quality education that’s why she wants to attend the white school called Little Rock Central High School.

    As a negative result … she was harassed and humiliated and teachers didn’t interfere // her father lost his job and // her house was bombed / her friends were wrongly accused.

    As a positive result … She changed mentalities and paved the way for other Black kids. She graduated and was the first African American girl to get a diploma in Little Rock.

    New York Times article

    Key facts

  • It happened on September 23rd, 1957 in Little Rock, Arkansas outside / in front of the ‘former’ white-only school. 9 black students tried to go to school / attempted to integrate in the morning but they had to leave around midday.
  • They were turned away by a mob / crowd of angry white demonstrators.This attempt only lasted for 3hours and 13 minutes so it failed.Remember!
    • Abolition of slavery: 1865
    • to be responsible for: être responsible de
    • to advise so. To do sthg: conseiller à qq’un de faire qqchose.
    • As a result / as a consequence : par conséquent
    • to be harassed: être harcelé / molesté
    • to be ostracized: être exclu
    • to bomb: exploser / bombarder
    • a miscarriage of justice: une erreur judiciaire.
    • to fail: rater
    • to attempt = to try
    • noon: midi
    • to bow / to yield to pressure: céder à la pression
    • crowd: une foule / a mob : une horde (foule aggressive)
    • a riot: une émeute

GRAMMAR!

PASSIVE VOICE

were harassed / were humiliated / were turned away / were roughed up: be (past ) + past participle

the subject is a victim, we have empathy, we feel sorry for him/her.

EXERCICES

http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=8777

http://michel.barbot.pagesperso-orange.fr/hotpot/mlk/passif.htm

http://www.academie-en-ligne.fr/Ressources/4/AN31/AL4AN31TEWB0212-Sequence-10.pdf

HEROINES?

There are different types of heroes:

– superheroes > fiction

– modern / historical heroes > real people who challenged mentalities, opposed a situation and stood up for a cause. (Mandela, MLK, Rosa Parks)

– everyday heroes (firefighters, surgeons… )

The journalist in the New York Times article is biased because he criticizes the white mob, he uses the lexical field of fury and hysteria. He portrays the white crowd in a very negative way.

CONCLUSIONS:

Carlotta Wallis, Elizabeth Eckford, Claudette Colvin are ‘unexpected‘ heroines because they were teenagers, girls and Black so they were strong minded and very brave butt they are not remembered by history books, they are not as famous as Martin Luther King or Rosa Parks, they are ‘unsung’ (‘ne sont pas louées, célébrées, chantées.)

They set the example for Black generations, they were the foot soldiers of the bus boycott and they have to be remembered!

The battle for school integration and desegregation was a very slow, difficult and complicated process. Mentalities didn’t change as fast as the laws. The situation for Black people didn’t change overnight.

This event is important because the national guard was present and it echoes racial tensions happening today in Ferguson.

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TSTMG Nov 28th UNit 2 – The COLOR LINE – “One of the LIttle Rock Looks Back” + Little Rock 9 crisis intro

Due on Tuesday, December 2nd.

HW – Prepare questions 1 & 2 on the text.

Monday 2.30 pm Room A 209 Thomas Ryan Alexandre Maxime Mohammed

20141121_193013

THE LITTLE ROCK 9 CRISIS

TEXT STUDY

Context : 1957 = 92 years after the bolition of slavery: 1865 // 3 years after end of school segregation (1954)

Character: Carlotta > yound African American girl/ another one of the Little Rock Nine like Elizabeth.

Where: Little Rock / Arkansas

What : she decided to go to Little Rock Centra High School – a former white-only school.

When exactly : she decided in Spring 57 (Printemps 1957)  to go to Central High School in Fall (automne 1957)

Her teacher gave her the idea / this high school offered top-quality education. / she didn’t say anything to her parents.

Listening Comprehension

ONE OF THE LITTLE ROCK NINE LOOKS BACK

KEY FACTS :

Team 1 – WHO ? WHAT ? WHERE? WHEN? TYPE OF DOC?

DETAILS

Team 2 – About ELizabeth

Team 3 – About the context

Team 4 – Why is it important today?

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14091050

Screen Shot 2014-11-16 at 21.48.53

In 1957, Elizabeth Eckford and 8 other students tried to integrate a former white-only school in Little Rock, Arkansas.

The 9 African American students are now called ‘the Little Rock Nine’.

It happened 3 years after the ruling Brown vs Board of Education ended school segregation in 1954. It allowed Black students in white schools.

The 9 students were supposed to come together as a group. There was confusion and Elizabeth didn’t get the message.  So she took a city bus by herself.

But Elizabeth was turned away by the guard, she couldn’t enter the school. She was followed by angry demonstrators.

This event is important today because segregation in school is not over, there are still discriminations and racism. The recent shootings of Black teenagers by white police officers (Trayvon Martin and Michael Brown) are hitting the headlines / in the news.

to happen: se passer

to allow: autoriser

by herself: toute seule / de son côté

a shooting: meurtre par balle

to hit the headlines: faire la une

Passive voice / voix passive :

Ex. to be turned away / stopped by …

Ex. to be followed by : être suivie par

En 1957, E. E. et 8 autres étudiants Africain Américains ont essayé d’aller à l’école de Little Rock qui était une école ‘blanche’ pendant la ségrégation dans la ville de Little Rock dans l’Arkansas. Ces 9 étudiants sont connus aujourd’hui sous le nom des ‘9’ de Little Rock. Cet évènement a eu lieu 3 ans après la décision de la Court Suprême dans le dossier Brown contre le conseil d’éducation qui a mis fin à la ségrégation dans les écoles aux Etats Unis. cette décision autorisait les élèves noirs à aller à l’école avec les blancs.

TRANSCRIPT

bold = A2 – B1

green =  B1-B2

ROBERT SMITH, host:

Now a first day of school story like no other. It’s part of our series on the battle over desegregation in Little Rock, Arkansas. Fifty years ago today, nine black students tried to attend Little Rock’s all-white Central High School. What happened there changed the country.

Here is DAY TO DAY’s Alex Chadwick with the story of one of those children and her back to school nightmare.

ALEX CHADWICK: Labor Day evening 50 years ago, the governor of Arkansas asks for emergency TV and radio time to speak to the state.

(Soundbite of recording) Governor ORVAL FAUBUS (Democrat, Arkansas): Units of the Nation Guard have been and are now being mobilized with the mission to maintain or restore the peace and good order of this community.

CHADWICK: The guard was there to prevent violence, Orval Faubus said. No, said others, he was making things worse, his emergency.

The Little Rock School Board was allowing nine black students to attend the previously all-white high school. And on that first day, September 4th, the nine were supposed to meet to go together as group to school. But in that morning there was confusion, and one of them took a city bus to the school by herself.

Ms. ELIZABETH ECKFORD (Little Rock Nine): I’m Elizabeth Eckford. I’m 65 years old now. Fifty years ago I was part of a picture that has become iconic when I attempted to enter Little Rock Central High School and I was turned away by the Arkansas National Guard and subsequently followed by angry demonstrators.

(Soundbite of crowd)

BAC transcript example:

Ce document est un extrait d’une émission radio pour les 50 ans de l’évènement de Little Rock, elle fait partie d’une séries d’émissions sur le combat pour la ‘dé-ségrégation’. Cet évènement a changé le pays. C’est une histoire de rentrée des classes pas comme les autres. Alex raconte l’histoire du cauchemar d’une de ces élèves.

Il y a 50 ans le gouverneur d’Arkansas lance un appel à la radio et à la télévision pour demander la protection de la garde nationale à Little Rock dans un effort de paix et pour garantir le bon ordre dans sa communauté.

Le gouverneur explique que la garde nationale devait prévenir des actes de violence, des commentateurs eux, pensent qu’il n’a fait qu’aggraver les choses en créant un sentiment d’urgence / de panique.

Les 9 été censés aller à l’école pour le premier jour en groupe, tous ensemble cependant dans la confusion, E. n’a pas reçu le message et a pris le bus seule.

On entend le témoignage d’Elizabeth qui a 65 ans aujourd’hui, elle dit qu’elle fait partie d’une image devenue une icône / un symbole. Elle a essayé d’aller à l’école de Little Rock. Elle est émue, elle raconte qu’elle s’est retrouvée bloquée par la garde nationale et n’a pas pu rentrer, des manifestants blancs en colères l’ont suivie.

Copyright ©2007 NPR.

REMINDER

TEST CORRECTIONS

  • Black people were separated from White people during segregation.
  • There were different rules for Black people.
  • In his speech he fought for the aboltion of segregation.
  • He helped many people and he fought (against) segregation.
  • This poster forbade Black people to drink with white people.
  • Rosa Parks is a black woman who refused to give up her seat to a white man on the bus.
  • She was found guilty.
  • She became an example for us.
  • A thousand people / Thousands of people boycotted the bus for 381 days.
  • My favourite image is the one which shows Martin Luther King because it symbolizes the fight against racial segregation.
  • The fought (against) segregation.

TSTMG HW One of the Little Rock Nine Looks Back

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14091050

UNIT 2 – The Color Line

Session 3 : Little Rock Nine / Read & React.

Listen to One of the Little Rock Nine Looks Back.

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14091050

1- Look at the title and dates of this document. Why did they decide to speak about the Little Rock Nine?

2- Match each name with the correct occupation:

guide – student – governor – reporter

ALEX CHADWICK – ORVAL FAUBUS – ELIZABETH ECKFORD – KRYSTAL MERCER

3- Which picture is referred to? Why? Pick out words you hear.

Screen Shot 2014-11-16 at 21.48.53 African American students arriving at high school  in U.S. Army car LittleRockNineLeaveCentralHigh

4- What happened to Elizabeth? Why?

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5- How does she feel now?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Tles & 1ères LVA Unit 2 -THE COLOR LINE

Unit 2 – The Color Line

Recap’

Last week:

CORRECTION

In this report we learn about two major Supreme Court Rulings. One made segregation legal in schools in America in 1896. It was the Plessy Vs Ferguson Court ruling. This ruling enforced the ‘Seperate but equal’ mentality which saw the school system divided along racial lines.

The other Court Ruing called Brown Vs Board of Education paved the way for the integration of Black kids in schools. This ruling is linked to the story of Linda Brown in Kansas, who had to walk to go to a black school at the other end of the city.

Aderson Francois, a teacher at Howard University says that this ruling marked the end of school segregation but he also states that it didn’t include any specific date so some states could carry on segregation after the law was passed.

The journalist then explains that in 2012 the University of California published a study that shows how schools are LESS racially mixed than 40 years ago which means the situation is even worse today than it was at the time of segregation. She concludes saying social and economic problems are responsible for this situation.

TRANSCRIPT

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hfbKnFSq5z4

The US is marking 60 years since the end of segregation, a 1964 landmark Supreme Court Ruling in the case of Brown Vs the Board of Education struck down the ‘separate but equal’ concept in education. This was meant to start the US down the path towards equality in schools across America.

But fast forward 6 decades and it turns out segregation is actually still running rampant in the country.

A report released this week by UCLA Civil Rights Project finds that Black and Latino students are more likely to attend schools with poor students whereas White and Asians students are more likely to be at middle-class schools.

Meanwhile segregation doesn’t just affect Black and White students any longer.

The number of Latino students has sky-rocketed making them the largest minority in public schools. There are nearly five times more Hispanic students in the US than during the Civil Rights Era and 30 % fewer White students.

According to this report :

New York, Illinois and California are the top 3 states for isolating Black students

as you can see on this map, only 8 % of Black students in California attend mostly white schools; in New York, it’s just over 13 %.

So when the end of segregation was passed in 1954, there were zero Black students in mostly white schools. According to the Department of Education statistics, in 1988 the number of Black students in majority white schools peaked to over 33% and then dropped down to 23% in 2011.

The UCLA reports that classrooms in America are less integrated today than they were in the 1960s. Analysts say progress has been made in the sixties and then largely halted over the last 2 decades, pointing to Supreme Court changes to desegregation laws in the 1990s. Others point to racial discrimination laws as well as the tendency for more well-off families to flock to better neighbourhoods and schools so the more disadvantaged kids end up in a more disadvantaged schools and those already well-off take up spots in the better classrooms.

So while officially the times of segregation are long gone, in reality, many kids are faced up to another truth: the education system separating them as opposed to bringing them up together to get ready for a much more diverse world.

  • Intro : 60 years since the end of segregation

Key facts:

1964 landmark Supreme Court Ruling / Brown Vs the Board of Education

meant to struck down the ‘separate but equal’ concept in education

to start the US down the path towards equality in schools across America.

BUT

segregation is actually still running rampant

1. report / by UCLA Civil Rights Project :

Black and Latino students > chools with poor students

whereas White and Asians students > middle-class schools.

2. segregation doesn’t just affect Black and White students

number of Latino students / sky-rocketed > largest minority in public schools

CR Era # 5 x + Hispanic students / 30 % – White

3- NY (13% Black in White schools) / Illinois / California (8%) = top 3 states isolating Black students.

During CR Era: 0 Black students in White schools

in 1988 33%

in 2011 23%

> Why?

progress in the 60s / halted in the 80s/90s

= now rich white kids go to rich neighbourhoods / disadvantaged Black kids can only go to poor neighbourhoods.

CCL – So while officially the times of segregation are over, in reality the education system still separates rich / poor // White + Asians vs Black / Hispanics

HW- Read Little Rock Nine text.

November 20th, 2014

UNIT 2 – The Color Line

Session 3 : Little Rock Nine / Read & React.

Today’s plan:

review:

Jim Crow laws > racial laws > aimed at separating Black people from White people

> feeling of White supremacy

abolition of slavery 1865 / Lincoln

1896 Ruling of Plessy vs Ferguson > made segregation legal

South of America

segregation:

Private businesses / transportation / Black people were given the jobs white people didn’t want / schools

Black people were not allowed to have lunch in some restaurants, they didn’t go to the same schools as white people…

BAC problems:

The heroic role of kids and women in the Civil Rights movement against segregation in the US?

  • Last week: Rosa Parks / Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • Segregation in schools today vs in the past?
  • Heroes: ordinary people or historical figures? Unsung / unexpected acts of bravey vs what history books keep in mind.
  • Progress: to change the situation for Black people was a hard and long struggle / it didn’t happen overnight.
  • Power: Laws are challenged by individuals ( Boycotts / speeches/ Parks / Martin Luther King)

    But sometimes individuals need to keep fighting for the laws to be enforced.

TODAY we focus on:

  • The Little Rock Nine Crisis Text Study – Carlotta
  • One of the Little Rock Nine looks back – Elizabeth

The heroic role of kids and women in the Civil Rights movement against segregation in the US.

1950s – 1960s Civil Rights Movement – Freedom Riders / Fighters

Kennedy / Eisenhower / L. B . Johnson drafted the Civil Rights Act which ended segregation in 1964.

1954 – Brown Vs Board of Education ruling > schools should be desegregated.

Two landmark / key rulings:

1896 – Plessy Vs Ferguson = ‘Separate but Equal’ concept / segregation is legal

1954 – Brown Vs Board of Education = End of segregation

So far in the US White schools don’t accept Black students. The students are not considered equal. They don’t enjoy the same standards of education, not the same equipment, not the same level of education.

  • So far: jusque là
  • the same … as: le même que

Behind the school segregation is the idea that Black kids aren’t and should not become as clever as white kids because they could start to challenge the White system.

  • To challenge: remettre en question
  • to become: devenir
  • clever: intelligent

The Little Rock Nine crisis illustrates a key moment in the ‘desegregation’ history, it paved the way for more Black kids to attend former white-only schools.

  • Key moment: moment clef
  • to pave the way for … : enclencher
  • to attend a school: aller à l’école
  • former: ancienne

1. The story is told by one of the nine black kids who tried to integrate Little Rock Central high school in 1957, in Arkansas. This school was a white-only school before 1954 and the B Vs B of Ed ruling.

Her name is Carlotta, she was a teenage student. We can notice a guard / soldier on the picture which tells us that the situation could get worse and be violent. So the kids need protection.

2. a. Schools before 1954 were separated between white-only ( rich ) and black-only (poor).

b-

She decided to go because …

  • there was a desegregation plan at the national level
  • her teacher advised her / is responsible for the decision
  • this school offers top-quality education
  • is not far away.

As a negative result …

  • she was harassed and humiliated and teachers wouldn’t interfere
  • her father lost / would loose his job and had / would have trouble finding a new one
  • her home was / would be bombed / her friends were / would be wrongly accused /
  • miscarriage of justice / scapegoats

As a positive result …

  • In spite of these obstacles, she managed to graduate and was the first African American girl to get a diploma in Little Rock.
  • She succeeded in changing mentalities and paved the way for other Black kids to be considered as clever as White kids.
  • Carlotta’s decision:

Her teacher is responsible for her decision / He advised her to go / he asked her if she could be interested in going.

The school is quite close (“less than a mile”) to her house / it’s not far away from her house.

It offers top-quality education that’s why she wants to attend the white school called Little Rock Central High School.

As a consequence / Because of her decision she was harassed, molested, mocked, shouted at and humiliated by white students.

As a result her father lost his job and had trouble finding a new one.

Her house was bombed and her friends were accused of the bombing. They were the victims of a miscarriage of justice.

On the other hand, she was the first black girl to get her diploma / to graduate in Little Rock.

She paved the way for new generations of Black kids.

She became an iconic symbol for change.

  • New York Times article ‘President Threatens … ‘

New York Times article ‘President Threatens … ‘

It takes place in Little Rock Nine on the day Carlotta and the other eight black students tried / attempted to integrate the White Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas.

A ‘failed attempt’ is reported. They tried to go to school in the morning but at noon they were ordered to leave.

They only stayed inside for 3 hours. The crowd protested and won. They were hysterical and infuriated / outraged / hateful.

White students sang racist songs to show they were against it / their disapproval.

The authorities bowed / yielded to the pressure. They were supposed to protect them, escort them but they turned them away / forced them to leave. Nobody was hurt.

  • CROWD: about a thousand people / white supremacists / ‘mob’ ‘hysterical’ ‘ fury’ ‘withdrawal’

White demonstrators forced the withdrawal of the Little Rock Nine / they were so hysterical / violent that they managed / succeeded in putting pressure on the guards and had them force the Black kids to leave. They were successful.

  • AUTHORITIES ‘national guard’ followed by an order that comes from President Eisenhower and the governor of Arkansas.

The guards were here to protect the kids /escort them inside but in the end they forced them to leave.

  • WHITE STUDENTS ‘They are singing racists songs to show they disagree with integration.
  • BLACK STUDENTS : they are forced to leave.

The journalist criticizes the crowd of supremacists by portraying them as angry rioters, hysterical, infuriated and outraged people. > caricature of the angry White man.

Remember!

  • Abolition of slavery: 1865
  • to be responsible for: être responsible de
  • to advise so. To do sthg: conseiller à qq’un de faire qqchose.
  • As a result / as a consequence : par conséquent
  • to be harassed: être harcelé / molesté
  • to be ostracized: être exclu
  • to bomb: exploser / bombarder
  • a miscarriage of justice: une erreur judiciaire.
  • A failed attempt: une tentative ratée / un échec
  • noon: midi
  • to bow / to yield to pressure: céder à la pression
  • Listen to One of the Little Rock Nine Looks Back, 2007.

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14091050

1- Look at the title and dates of this document. Why did they decide to speak about the Little Rock Nine?

They broadcast a special show because they celebrate the 50th anniversary of the event. One of the students remembers / recalls / recounts the event / what she went through.

2- Match each name with the correct occupation:

guide – student – governor – reporter – photographer

ALEX CHADWICK – ORVAL FAUBUS – ELIZABETH ECKFORD – KRYSTAL MERCER – WILL COUNT

3- Which picture is referred to? Why? Pick out words you hear.

Screen Shot 2014-11-16 at 21.48.53

Large sunglasses – wearing a white dress – alone – angry mob – white woman’s face distorted by hatred – notebok – shield

4- What happened to Elizabeth? Why?

She took a city on her own / alone / couldn’t be part of the group > because of the confusion / phone call she didn’t receive because she didn’t have a phone.

5- How does she feel now?

She doesn’t want to talk about it anymore / has had enough / doesn’t want to recall this event because it’s too painful.

6- What was the governor’s reaction to desegregation?

He asked for troops / national guards to ensure peace and safety in good faith.

In the end his action is controversial.

7- What is Krystal’s feeling towards Elizabeth?

They are both black, Krystal was told about E’s story and they share a personal feeling of being black in a white school.

HW –

Tles: be ready for test on Unit 2 – Color Line + read / prepare questions on texts ‘Defending oneself’ / do ex. grammar /words / pronunvciation

1ères : imagine you’re Carlotta or Elizabeth. You’re writing a page in your diary on the day of the event. Tell about what happend and how you felt. / ex. Grammar / Words

WATC VIDEO FOR ‘pronunciation exercise’.

One of the ‘Little Rock Nine’ Looks Back

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14091050

September 04, 2007 3:04 PM ET

ROBERT SMITH, host:

Now a first day of school story like no other. It’s part of our series on the battle over desegregation in Little Rock, Arkansas. Fifty years ago today, nine black students tried to attend Little Rock’s all-white Central High School. What happened there changed the country.

Here is DAY TO DAY’s Alex Chadwick with the story of one of those children and her back to school nightmare.

ALEX CHADWICK: Labor Day evening 50 years ago, the governor of Arkansas asks for emergency TV and radio time to speak to the state.

(Soundbite of recording)

Governor ORVAL FAUBUS (Democrat, Arkansas): Units of the Nation Guard have been and are now being mobilized with the mission to maintain or restore the peace and good order of this community.

CHADWICK: The guard was there to prevent violence, Orval Faubus said. No, said others, he was making things worse, his emergency.

The Little Rock School Board was allowing nine black students to attend the previously all-white high school. And on that first day, September 4th, the nine were supposed to meet to go together as group to school. But in that morning there was confusion, and one of them took a city bus to the school by herself.

Ms. ELIZABETH ECKFORD (Little Rock Nine): I’m Elizabeth Eckford. I’m 65 years old now. Fifty years ago I was part of a picture that has become iconic when I attempted to enter Little Rock Central High School and I was turned away by the Arkansas National Guard and subsequently followed by angry demonstrators.

(Soundbite of crowd)

CHADWICK: There were also reporters and photographers, and among them Will Counts. He took the image that captured that day at Central High. It’s at our Web site, npr.org.

There’s Elizabeth, arms cradled, holding a notebook in front of her like a small shield. She’s wearing a crisply starched white dress. She has large sunglasses with a tortoise shell frame. She’s walking, alone, in an angry crowd. A white girl right behind her, Elizabeth’s age, this girl’s face twisted in hatred and anger; the picture so powerful, you could hear it. She’s on the second syllable, -ger…

Fifty years later, it is still a strain for Elizabeth Eckford to recall these moments. Some of this story is better told by others.