1L The Road by Cormac McCArthy

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The Road by Cormac Mc Carthy

 

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Tles LMA Revisions – THE IMAGINARY – Madness and split-personalities in fiction.

KEY FACTS

Split-Personalities and the Representation of Madness.

REVISION WORKSHOP

une oeuvre littéraire: a literary work

a literary production / a body of work : l’ensemble de la production

We talked about / mentioned / discussed / studied / explored … “

1- What theme did we cover?

Literature themes:

for the bac you introduce 2 themes only > you choose your themes!

1- The Imaginary > Madness / Split Personalities

2- Travel, exile, initiation narratives.

3- The writer in his time.

4- The EYE and the I.

2- More precisely, what did we study?

We commented on / read extracts of imaginary /

fiction stories which were published at the end of the 19th century, which were written by English writers.

They all feature a hero with a dual personality.

For example The Strange case of Dr Jekyll and My Hyde is about a respectable scientist who turns into an evil man.

We also mentioned The Picture of Dorian Gray which is about a man who enjoys eternal beauty, immortality thanks to a painting which gets uglier and uglier as a consequence for Dorian’s crimes.

We also talked about Dracula because he is the epitome / archetype of dual personality. He is both an animal / a vampire and a man.

Intro question ? Why are we fascinated by dual characters?

Ccl > We are fascinated by dual personalities because we are also split between our admiration, pleasure for reading and our fear.

We enjoy “delightful horror”, we like being scared.

BAC LIST FOR YOU TO CHOOSE FROM:

  • Dracula written by Bram Stoker in 1897.
  • The Picture of Dorian Gray written by Oscar Wilde in 1890.
  • The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde written Stevenson in 1886.
  • Varney the Vampire by Rymer, 1845-47.

Suggested readings:

  • The Island of Dr Moreau by H. G. Wells
  • The Yellow WallPaper, by Charlotte Perkins Gilman.
  • Shutter Island by Denis Lehane
  • Nosferatu by Murnau 1921
  • The Tell Tale heart by E. A. Poe

http://www.scientificoatripalda.it/dualism/theDoubleInOtherWorks.php

FACTS

Who is Dr Jekyll? Mr Hyde?

> How does the transformation happen?

Takes a drug / potion he created to split his inner self into two different characters / individuals

> Where does he live?

He lives in a house in London during the Victorian period. His house has a secret door and two different entrances and a secret room / laboratory.

> How is the split personality represented in the story? (techniques?)

The narrative is fragmented, there are different narratives contained in a single story.

It’s called an embedded or framed narrative. The narrator acts like a private detective and as readers we feel the same.

Also there are metaphors and similes which play with literal and figurative meanings. For example the city streets are always dark and lit by street lamps, doors are separating the evil and dark world of the private life of Dr Jekyll from his outside moral and respectable reputation in the city.

Who is Dracula?

> How has the legend evolved?

Dracula used to represent evil and the devil in the past, he was a monster embodying people’s fear of the ‘other’, the invader or the sexual forbidden fantasies.

Now vampires are part of pop culture, they’re almost funny when we think of all the gimmicks and Halloween costumes.

> What feelings does he embody?

He is both appealing and scary, sexy and horrifying.

> What techniques are used by Stoker?

The novel by Stoker is a series of letters and ‘real’ documents. It makes the reader want to know more as he is rushed into the characters’ private exchanges and feelings. We feel like detectives or judges: what is good? What is evil? Who can we trust?

Who is Dorian Gray?

> What’s going on with the painting?

> What happens in the end?

> What is the implicit meaning of this story?

The Picture of Dorian Gray is an example of Gothic fiction with strong themes interpreted from the legendary Faust. Dorian Gray is the subject of a portrait in oil by Basil Hallward, an artist who is in love with Dorian’s beauty; he believes that Dorian’s beauty is responsible for the new mode in his art as a painter. Dorian in turn meets Lord Henry Wotton, and  is impressed by the aristocrat’s hedonistic worldview: that beauty and sensual experiences are the most important in life. Understanding that his beauty will disappear, Dorian decides to sell his soul. In exchange for his soul, the portrait grows old and ugly while he stays young and good-looking. Dorian enjoys a libertine life of varied and amoral experiences while his portrait records every soul-corrupting sin.

COMPARISONS AND CONCLUSIONS

Conclusion:

How are split personalities represented in literature?

Similarities

Facts:

Two-faced / Split characters Dracula : animal vs man

Dr Jekyll : respectable doctor / scientist vs evil creature

Dorian Gray: good-looking / successful young man vs criminal

Comments :

We can compare Dr Jekyll / Dracula and Dorian because all 3 protagonists / characters show a contrast / conflict between their physical appearance and their inner self. All three writers used the figure of a respectable man to trick / play with our preconcieved ideas. We are led to think that Dr Jekyll, Dracula or Dorian Gray can be trusted but we are mistaken / mislead. In the end we realize that even the emost rational, respectable men can be evil. So heroes have a dark side and we like it. That’s why Stoker, Wilde and Stevenson are considered to be the ones who envisioned the first anti-heroes in modern literature.

FACTS > reasons why they are split:

Dracula didn’t choose / was born like this

# Jekyll deliberately chose / intended to drink his drug because he designed it himself.

# Dorian Gray chose under the influence of another man.

We can ask ourselves if evil is inside us all or if it is triggered / provoked by circumstances.

Why is this theme interesting for us today?

Which activity / text did you find the most interesting? Why?

gray

The Picture of Dorian Gray is an example of Gothic fiction with strong themes interpreted from the legendary Faust. Dorian Gray is the subject of a portrait in oil by Basil Hallward, an artist who is in love with Dorian’s beauty; he believes that Dorian’s beauty is responsible for the new mode in his art as a painter. Dorian in turn meets Lord Henry Wotton, and  is impressed by the aristocrat’s hedonistic worldview: that beauty and sensual experiences are the most important in life. Understanding that his beauty will disappear, Dorian decides to sell his soul. In exchange for his soul, the portrait grows old and ugly while he stays young and good-looking. Dorian enjoys a libertine life of varied and amoral experiences while his portrait records every soul-corrupting sin.

> implying that Dorian is two men, a refined aesthete and a criminal.

= link to the double in The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886), by Robert Louis Stevenson, a novella admired by Oscar Wilde.

> reference to hedonistic lifestyle of the Decadents, a late nineteenth century artistic movement that prized beauty and aesthetic experience over everything else. Dorian Gray and its protagonist have become synonymous with the pursuit of pleasure, regardless of its moral consequences.

= can be linked to Orlok’s blood drinking final scene in Murnau’s Nosferatu. Orlok likes Mina’s blood so much he forgets about the coming day. When a rooster crows, Orlok vanishes in a puff of smoke as he tries to flee.

> Our society is obsessed with youth. Because we live in a culture where youth is idolized and age is our enemy – the goal these days seems to be not just to stop aging, but to get younger. In the nineteenth century people also wished for undying youth and beauty.

= can also explain why vampires are so popular and get sexier and sexier over time… Also Mr Hyde is younger and stronger than Jekyll in appearance.

> ” I should fancy that the real tragedy of the poor is that they can afford nothing but self-denial. Beautiful sins, like beautiful things, are the privilege of the rich.” Basically, here Lord Henry seems to think that if you can afford to be sinfully self-indulgent, you should go ahead and do it.

= can be linked to the first incident in Dr Jekyll & Mr Hyde when Hyde stamps on the little girl and then offers to pay her family a cheque which has the name of Jekyll on it…

> ” Besides, was it really under his control? Had it indeed been prayer that had produced the substitution? Might there not be some curious scientific reason for it all? If thought could exercise its influence upon a living organism, might not thought exercise an influence upon dead and inorganic things? Nay, without thought or conscious desire, might not things external to ourselves vibrate in unison with our moods and passions, atom calling to atom in secret love or strange affinity? But the reason was of no importance. He would never again tempt by a prayer any terrible power. If the picture was to alter, it was to alter. That was all. Why inquire too closely into it?”

= like Dr Jekyll who is determined to take the risk to drink his potion, Dorian doesn’t want to try to undo what he wished for. His choice to leave the portrait as it is and not even try to pray forgiveness means he stepped in the dark side willingly.

> ” One hardly knew at times whether one was reading the spiritual ecstasies of some mediaeval saint or the morbid confessions of a modern sinner. It was a poisonous book.” This book is said to be Huysmans A rebours, a decadent French book. This book as an evil influence on Dorian and is described as dual in itself. The character of the book is both angel and demon, a saint and a sinner and the line between good and evil is blurred by his power of seduction.

= the theme of temptation and dually is everywhere in Dracula as well as in Dr Jekyll & Mr Hyde. Poisons are aso everywhere: in the form of blood or drugs.

> “Each of us has heaven and hell in him, Basil,” cried Dorian with a wild gesture of despair.

= like Dr Jejyl & Hyde or Dracula = allegory about the good and evil that exist in all men

http://www.shmoop.com/picture-dorian-gray/

Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde is the original title of a novella written by the Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson that was first published in 1886. The work is commonly known today as The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, or simply Jekyll & Hyde. It is about a London lawyer named Gabriel John Utterson who investigates strange occurrences between his old friend, Dr. Henry Jekyll,[and the evil Edward Hyde. The work is commonly associated with the rare mental condition often spuriously called “split personality”, referred to in psychiatry as dissociative identity disorder, where within the same body there exists more than one distinct personality. In this case, there are two personalities within Dr Jekyll, one apparently good and the other evil.  The novel, a mystery thriller about a respectable man who takes a potion to occasionally become a dark and evil character, was written as a “shilling shocker.” or “penny dreadful”. Popular during the Victorian era (the mid-1800s to about 1900), shilling shockers were short, graphic, and inexpensive books eagerly consumed by the masses –like those cheap romance novels you find in the supermarket. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde has been in continual publication for over 120 years.

dr-jekyll-and-mr-hyde1

Instead of a Peter Parker/Spiderman deal, Dr. Jekyll went in the opposite direction and created an evil alter ego via some mysterious potion. His alter ego, Edward Hyde, who has a completely different appearance and personality, gets to do all the fun and illegal things that Jekyll, or any normal person, can’t. Although we don’t get the juicy details, it’s pretty clear that Mr. Hyde is a pretty perverse, wicked, sinful, foul guy – all around NOT the kind of person you want to meet in a dark alley.

> ” Both sides of me were in dead earnest; I was no more myself when I laid aside restraint and plunged in shame, than when I laboured, in the eye of day, at the futherance of knowledge or the relief of sorrow and suffering.”  (10.1)

Good and evil exist in equal parts in Dr. Jekyll.

> ” It was on the moral side, and in my own person, that I learned to recognise the thorough and primitive duality of man”

Dr. Jekyll believes that good and evil should be separated from each other because he can not balance them well when they are mingled.

> Importance of the setting in both Jeky & Dorian Gray : VICTORIAN ENGLAND

Notice the servants? The discrepancy between rich and poor? The bachelor living? The religious allusions? The repression? That’s Victorian England. This setting allows Dr. Jekyll to become a more sympathetic character. It also explains why he needed to unleash his inner Hyde.

> Who is the narrator, can she or he read minds, and, more importantly, can we trust her or him?

http://www.shmoop.com/dracula/

Published in 1897, Dracula is a horror novel about a vampire named Count Dracula who leaves his native Transylvania (modern-day Romania, in southeastern Europe) to immigrate to England – presumably to feed on the “teeming millions” in the huge capital city of London. Pretty much every vampire book or movie in the twentieth century owes something to Stoker’s novel, from Nosferatu, a silent German film made in 1922, to Blade (1998) to the Anne Rice Interview with the Vampire series. Even vampire Edward Cullen of the Twilight saga acknowledges the impact Dracula has had on our collective imagination.Many critics like to read Stoker’s Dracula as being about the British fear that the people they had colonized and oppressed for so long would come to Britain to take revenge. Some critics think of Dracula as a kind of allegory about the collapse of British imperialism.

Jekyll & Hyde : Third person (limited); the story follows Mr. Utterson. The third person limited point of view picks one character and follows him around – in this case, Mr. Utterson. However, Mr. Utterson’s point of view is supplemented by four other narratives: Mr. Enfield’s story of the door, the maid’s account of the Carew murder, Dr. Lanyon’s story, and Dr. Jekyll’s confession. We get the story this way because it draws out the suspense, and the mystery. Each story is embedded in one another, like Russian Dolls, it’s called an embedded or framed narrative.

Dorian Gray: Third Person (Omniscient) Although we see the story mainly through the lens of Dorian’s opinions, we also dip into the minds of other characters here and there, from Lord Henry to Mrs. Vane. We’re able to see everyone’s thoughts and perspectives, the narration is really thorough and complete.

Dracula: First Person (Multiple Central Narrators) The novel is composed of a series of journal entries, letters, newspaper articles, and memos. This narrative technique puts the reader in the position of a judge or jury (or both): we hear the evidence of a variety of different eyewitnesses, and we’re supposed to interpret the evidence as best we can.

100 best novels dracula

Published in 1897, Dracula is a horror novel about a vampire named Count Dracula who leaves his native Transylvania (modern-day Romania, in southeastern Europe) to immigrate to England – presumably to feed on the “teeming millions” in the huge capital city of London. Pretty much every vampire book or movie in the twentieth century owes something to Stoker’s novel, from Nosferatu, a silent German film made in 1922, to Blade (1998) to the Anne Rice Interview with the Vampire series. Even vampire Edward Cullen of the Twilight saga acknowledges the impact Dracula has had on our collective imagination.Many critics like to read Stoker’s Dracula as being about the British fear that the people they had colonized and oppressed for so long would come to Britain to take revenge. Some critics think of Dracula as a kind of allegory about the collapse of British imperialism.

TLES The Imaginary > Two-Faced heroes > DRACULA October 8th, 2014

October 8th, 2014

English Literature

THEME – The Imaginary – > Two-faced heroes

Before today:

The Picture of Dorian Gray by O. Wilde

The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde by Stevenson

Dracula

Nosferatu by Murnau (1921)

Varney the Vampyre by James Malcolm Rymer (1845) before Dracula / Dorian Gray

Dracula by Bram Stoker (1897)

I am Legend by Richard Metheson (1954)

Interview with a Vampire by Ann Rice (1976)

The Twilight Series by Stephanie Meyer (2006)

How do you know you’re not sitting next to a vampire?

Can see him in a mirror

doesn’t have any fangs

he / she can stand the sun light

he / she can stand sun light / crucifix

can’t turn into a rat / a sun light / a sun light

can’t fly / doesn’t drink sun light

doesn’t sleep in a sun light

> old folk legend from Eastern Europe / Vlad the Impaler

‘Dark Ages’ > Middle Ages

> evil / creature from Hell / death

> eternal youth / kill people to stay alive

> cannibalism and vampirism were ‘discovered’ by / fascinated Europeans during the Enlightenment.

> vampires encapsulated fear of the ‘other’, fear of death but also fascination for the underworld, dark ruins, old castles and they illustrate the decline of the aristocracy.

Vampires through time / over time have really changed / evolved.

Starting from Varney the Vampire / Nosferatu onto The Vampire Diaries and Twilight, vampires have become more attractive and their faces have become more human.

We delight in vampire stories because we like being scared.

Edward is more attractive / handsome / good-looking than Varney.

Ed is hotter / sexier than Varney.

They are the Beauty and the Beast version of the vampire myth.

It’s more and more difficult for the viewer / reader to see the difference between the sexy lover and the scary creature / monster.

HW – Finish your table / read your texts /

Find more similarities / differences between old and new vampires

Vampire Literature

Thalaba the Destroyer by Robert Southey (1801).

La Morte Amoureuse by Théophile Gautier (1836).

Varney the Vampire or The Feast of Blood by James Malcolm Rymer (or Thomas Peckett Prest) (1847).

Le Chevalier Ténèbre (Knightshade) by Paul Féval (1860).

La Vampire (The Vampire Countess) by Paul Féval (1865).

Carmilla (1872) by Sheridan le Fanu.

Bewitched (1927) by Edith Wharton.

Salem’s Lot by Stephen King (1975).

Fevre Dream by George R. R. Martin (1982).

Let the Right One In by John Ajvide Lindqvist (2004)

Vampire Series

Guillermo del Toro with Chuck Hogan The Strain (La trilogía de la oscuridad) (2009 – ).

Stephenie Meyer’s Twilight series series (2005–2008)

Anne Rice’s Vampire Chronicles series (1976–2003).

L.J. Smith’s The Vampire Diaries (1991)

Vampire TV Series

True Blood is an American television drama series produced and created by Alan Ball. (2008-)

Being Human is a British supernatural drama television series. It was created and written by Toby Whithouse for broadcast on BBC Three. (2008-)

Vampire Comics

Blade (Marvel, 1973)

Nosferatu (Viper Comics, 2010)

Vampire Movies

Nosferatu by Murnau (1921)

Dracula (1931) – the first Universal Studios Dracula film, starring Bela Lugosi.

Dracula (1958) – aka Horror of Dracula; the first Hammer Dracula film, starring Christopher Lee as the Count.

Nosferatu the Vampyre (1979) – was Werner Herzog’s remake of Murnau’s silent classic.

Bram Stoker’s Dracula (1992) – Inspired by Dark Shadows and Dan Curtis’ Dracula, the 1992 film also merges a reincarnation romance with the medieval story of Vlad III; starring Gary Oldman as Dracula. Directed by Francis Ford Coppola.

The Wisdom of the crocodiles by Po-Chih Leong (1998)

A Vampire is a mythical being who subsists by feeding on the life essence (generally in the form of blood) of living creatures. In folkloric tales, undead vampires often visited loved ones and caused mischief or deaths in the neighbourhoods they inhabited when they were undead.

Although vampiric entities have been recorded in most cultures, the term vampire was not popularised until the early 18th century, after an influx of vampire superstition into Western Europe from areas where vampire legends were frequent, such as the Balkans and Eastern Europe.

Early folkloric belief in vampires has been ascribed to the ignorance of the body’s process of decomposition after death and how people in pre-industrial societies tried to rationalise this, creating the figure of the vampire to explain the mysteries of death.

The charismatic and sophisticated vampire of modern fiction was born in 1819 with the publication of The Vampyre by John Polidori. However, it is Bram Stoker’s 1897 novel Dracula which is remembered as the quintessential vampire novel and provided the basis of the modern vampire legend. The success of this book spawned a distinctive vampire genre, still popular in the 21st century, with books, films, and television shows. The vampire has since become a dominant figure in the horror genre.

The notion of vampirism has existed for millennia; cultures such as the Mesopotamians, Hebrews, Ancient Greeks, and Romans had tales of demons and spirits which are considered precursors to modern vampires. However, despite the occurrence of vampire-like creatures in these ancient civilizations, the folklore for the entity we know today as the vampire originates almost exclusively from early-18th-century southeastern Europe, when verbal traditions of many ethnic groups of the region were recorded and published. In most cases, vampires are revenants of evil beings, suicide victims, or witches, but they can also be created by a malevolent spirit possessing a corpse or by being bitten by a vampire. Belief in such legends became so pervasive that in some areas it caused mass hysteria and even public executions of people believed to be vampires.

Many of the myths surrounding vampires originated during the medieval period. Vampires proper originate in folklore widely reported from Eastern Europe in the late 17th and 18th centuries. These tales formed the basis of the vampire legend that later entered Germany and England, where they were subsequently embellished and popularized.

During the 18th century, there was a frenzy of vampire sightings in Eastern Europe, with frequent stakings and grave diggings to identify and kill the potential revenants; even government officials engaged in the hunting and staking of vampires.

Despite being called the Age of Enlightenment, during which most folkloric legends were quelled, the belief in vampires increased dramatically, resulting in a mass hysteria throughout most of Europe.

Although many scholars reported during this period that vampires did not exist, and attributed reports to premature burial or rabies, superstitious belief increased.

In modern fiction, the vampire tends to be depicted as a suave, charismatic villain.

The reinvention of the vampire myth in the modern era is not without political overtones. The aristocratic Count Dracula, alone in his castle apart from a few demented retainers, appearing only at night to feed on his peasantry, is symbolic of the parasitic Ancien regime.

In his entry for “Vampires” in the Dictionnaire philosophique (1764), Voltaire notices how the end of the 18th century coincided with the decline of the folkloric belief in the existence of vampires but that now “there were stock-jobbers, brokers, and men of business, who sucked the blood of the people in broad daylight; but they were not dead, though corrupted. These true suckers lived not in cemeteries, but in very agreeable palaces“.

Marx defined capital as “dead labour which, vampire-like, lives only by sucking living labour, and lives the more, the more labour it sucks“. Werner Herzog, in his Nosferatu the Vampyre, gives this political interpretation an extra ironic twist when protagonist Jonathan Harker, a middle-class solicitor, becomes the next vampire; in this way the capitalist bourgeois becomes the next parasitic class.

No effort to depict vampires in popular fiction was as influential or as definitive as Bram Stoker’s Dracula (1897). Its portrayal of vampirism as a disease of contagious demonic possession, with its undertones of sex, blood and death, struck a chord in Victorian Europe where tuberculosis and syphilis were common. The vampiric traits described in Stoker’s work merged with and dominated folkloric tradition, eventually evolving into the modern fictional vampire.

The legend of the vampire was cemented in the film industry when Dracula was reincarnated for a new generation with the celebrated Hammer Horror series of films, starring Christopher Lee as the Count. The successful 1958 Dracula starring Lee was followed by seven sequels.

Vampire lifestyle is a term for a contemporary subculture of people, largely within the Goth subculture, who consume the blood of others as a pastime; drawing from the rich recent history of popular culture related to cult symbolism, horror films, the fiction of Anne Rice, and the styles of Victorian England.

Extracts from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vampire