Also, social media are hiding behind the fact that they stand for free speech to allow racist comments to spread on their forums and platforms. This is really shocking / horrendous. It highlights the fact that racism is still rampant in the US today.
Racial tensions in America today remind us of past events, they echo tragic events and segregation. It’s as if the Civil Rights Movement, Martin Luther King, Rosa Parks … didn’t exist.
EX of REVISONS MEMO
Rosa Parks (RP) > in 1955 / refused to give up her seat > was arrested
> started the MontGomery Bus Boycott / led by MLK (26 y o)
Claudette Colvin ? > same as RP / she refused to give up her seat
BUT B4 RP & not famous Bcoz > teenager & bad reputa° (pregnant) / bad image for NAACP activist group in civil rights movement (created by MLK & Black lobby 2day)
LITTLE ROCk 9
after school segrega° ended in 1954 (Brown vs. Board of Education Supreme Court Ruling)
9 studts allowed in white-only school.
> demonstrations / white racist violence
heroes / heroines
- desegrega° bus / schools was a slow / complicated process
- famous heroes like MLK / Rosa Parks were not alone /
‘footsoldiers’ of the civil rights movement (Claudette Colvin, Carlotta, Elizabeth…)
- kids & women ‘unsung’ ‘unexpected’ heroes
Michael Brown vs Wilson > tensions in Ferguson
< Echo from the past / segregation / racism still exists / racial profiling by white police forces same as national guard vs. Claudette Colvin in 1957.
DATES & CONTEXT
1865- Lincoln abolished slavery
1896 – Plessy Vs Ferguson = ‘Separate but Equal’ concept / segregation is legal
1950s – 1960s = Civil Rights Movement (Mvt pr obten° droits civiques (vote, equal pay, equal educa°) / fin discriminations raciales)
1954 – Brown Vs Board of Education = End of segregation in schools.
1964 – Civil Rights Act/ End of Civil Rights movement
> Mexico 68 > Black Power demonstration / symbols and reactions. / iconic protests signs
> We always speak about MLK / Rosa Parks but were they alone? Role of Claudette Colvin / Elizabeth Eckford / kids & women in Civil Rights Movement
> The End of Segregation in school is official since 1954 but what happens in former white-only schools for Black people? Little Rock 9
> Tensions in Ferguson today > sparks nationwide concern for racial discriminations in the US today / is racism replacing segregation?
Carlotta Wallis, Elizabeth Eckford, Claudette Colvin are ‘unexpected‘ heroines because they were teenagers, girls and Black so they were strong minded and very brave but they are not remembered by history books, they are not as famous as Martin Luther King or Rosa Parks, they are ‘unsung’ (‘ne sont pas louées, célébrées, chantées.) Yet (pourtant) they set the example for Black generations, they were the foot soldiers of the bus boycott and they have to be remembered! The battle for school integration and desegregation was a very slow, difficult and complicated process. Mentalities didn’t change as fast as the laws. The situation for Black people didn’t change overnight. This event is important because the national guard was present and it echoes racial tensions happening today in Ferguson.
Myths and Heroes
Carlotta and Elizabeth didn’t plan their actions, they are both ‘unexpected’ heroines because they are ordinary school girls but their acts of defiance shows bravery and courage. So they are role models and they illustrate the heroic role of kids and women in the fight for equal rights.
The Idea of Progress
The Little Rock Nine story also shows how slow social progress can be. Even if laws were changed (1954 end of school segregation), people still had to fight for their rights and for mentalities to change.
Places and Forms of Power
The determination and courage of a group of teenagers challenged the established order of a white-only school. It shows that kids and women can win the fight for equality. Individuals, ordinary citizens can be more powerful than local guards and authorities.
This is really shocking / horrendous. It highlights the fact that racism is still rampant in the US today.