LVA February 12th Places and Forms of Power Session 1

February 12th, 2014.

LMA LVA Lesson Notes

Click here for Full bac file and lesson notes .pdf

Power bac docs

Power session 1 lesson notes

1- Which notion do you think we are going to study? Why?


Places and Forms of Power > US history + Black History + Death Penalty

> related to Us Laws / Slavery / Segregation / State Laws …


2- Use the Passive Voice to explain historical events.


Document 1 – Extract from Moore’ Bowling for Columbine.

> auxiliary BE > past or present tense + past participle of the verb.


During the Witch Hunt, witches were hunted, persecuted, tortured, humiliated, hung or burnt.

Slaves were brought to America during the Triangular Slave Trade.

They were forced to work without *wages.

The Emancipation Act was signed by Lincoln.

The NRA is said to be the most powerful US gun lobby.

(La NRA est considérée comme …)


> The passive voice is used when we sympathize or want our reader to sympathize with the subject who is the victim of the agent.

Here witches or slaves were subjected to oppression. The agent is introduced by ‘by’ but sometimes there is no agent.


3 – The Death Penalty


Doc – Jeremy Irons’s speech on Death Penalty.

> find opinion markers

I strongly agree / disagree with you because…

> find arguments in favour / against or in two minds about Death Penalty



  • cheaper to kill so. than to keep so.aAlive
  • to get your revenge / to have your owe back / to get a feeling of justice / peace of mind
  • to set an example / to deter crime / to prevent new killers / criminals / to scare potential offenders
  • more safety / more secure society
  • a deterrent to crime (disuasion)
  • medical purposes
  • to demonstrate the state’s overwhelming authority



  • it depends on the crime “an eye for an eye”
  • is a life sentence / life imprisonment stronger / harder / heavier a sentence?



  • by killing you become a killer too
  • worst to wait for death / in the death row than to be killed quickly
  • can’t redeem yourself/ ask for forgiveness
  • life is an inalienable rightfully
  • executions are inhuman
  • death sentence is irreversible
  • God’s only right
  • showing death as a show is wrong
  • pain inflicted
  • infringement on human rights / unconstitutional
  • unethical
  • crime rates don’t decrease nor rise in countries were the death penalty is still in place.
  • Archaic / beast-like
  • some offenders can be innocent / victims of miscarriage of justice
  • sentence depends on the price you pay your lawyer / some people can afford a good lawyer
  • medical institutions rather than death penalty






> Your mission: be able to stand for or against Death Penalty, use an opinion marker and be convincing.

  • to argue: débattre / to weigh the pros and cons: peser le pour et le contre
  • To agree # to disagree with so.

Opinion markers:
– I strongly / totally agree / disagree with
– I object to + noun
– I see eye to eye with X.
– Contrary to X, I truly believe that …
– Unlike X . I think that …
– I’m convinced that …
– No way! This is non-sense! How can you say such things! I can’t believe you just said that!
– Unbelievable! You must be out of your mind!
– What’s your point exactly ? Are you saying that …
– You’re going too far! You’re crossing the line!
– You may be right but …
– Let me be clear on that …
– I suppose it’s true but …
– Don’t forget that …

Death Penalty

  • to weigh the pros and cons: peser le pour et le contre.
    – to raise an issue: faire débat / poser problème.
    – to deal with / to cope with / to handle : faire face à / gérer
    – to set an example: montrer l’exemple
    – for so. not to + BV: afin que qq’un ne fasse pas qqch.
    – to deter crime: faire obstacle / désamorcer le crime
    – to prevent so. from + Vin: empêcher qq’un de
    – to change so’s mind: changer d’avis
    – to urge so. to do sthg: pousser qq’un à faire qq’chose.
    – to think twice: y réfléchir à deux fois
    – to commit a crime: commettre un crime
    – in retribution: par représaille
    – a revenge: une vengeance / in revenge: par vengeance
    – to seek revenge: par désir de vengeance
    – to have one’s own back: reprendre son dû, ici infliger à qq’un la peine qu’il nous a infligée.
    – loss: perte
    – pain: peine
    – to regard so. as : considérer q’un comme
    – to be responsible for: être responsable de
    – a human being: un être humain
    – to keep so. in jail: garder qq’un en prison
    – for the rest of his life: pour le restant de ses jours.

    –on death row: condamné à mort

    – to be waiting on death row: attendre dans le couloir de la mort

Pros of Death Penalty
– an eye for an eye a tooth for a tooth
– an inhumane crime deserves to be punished by an inhumane sanction

– a convict: un condamné
– it sets an example for other criminals not to commit the same crime
– it deters crimes / it prevents other criminals from committing crimes / it can change their minds before they act / it can urge them to think twice because they commit a crime.
– it’s retribution to the victim’s family / a revenge / a way to deal with pain and loss.
– you kill someone because you think he/she is responsible for his / her actions so you regard him/her as a human being so death penalty is not against human dignity.
– it’s more cruel / barbaric to keep someone in jail for the rest of his life.
– punishment / sanction
– to match / to correspond to


Cons of Death Penalty
– expensive / costly
– no one should decide if so. should live or die
– God’s right
– there can be miscarriages of justice
– to be wrongly accused : être accusé à tort
innocent can be killed by mistake: des innocents peuvent être tués par erreur
executioners are killers themselves: les bourraux sont des tueurs eux aussi
– sacred: sacré
– as long as: tant que
– to mourn / to grieve
– no matter what she / he did
– life-imprisonment

– parole: liberté conditionnelle

– life imprisonment without parole: prison à vie sans liberté conditionnelle.

– on death row: condamné à mort

– to be waiting on death row: attendre dans le couloir de la mort


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